Why is Plastic Bad for the Environment? (Easy Explanation)

Plastic is a form of pollution and has become a pressing issue because of its harmful environmental effects.

Plastic is a synthetic material that is cheap, strong, and resistant. Its characteristics make it an appealing material for production and consumption, while those characteristics are problematic for the environment.

Plastic is mass-produced and consumed across the globe and is a major part of our day-to-day lives.

Plastic is bad for the environment for various reasons, but mainly because it ends up in the environment (e.g., ocean, land, or soil) and does not decompose.

6 Ways that Plastics Harm the Environment

The following section will outline six ways that plastics harm the environment.

1. Release Toxins into the Environment

Only a limited amount of plastics are properly recycled or reused. The remaining plastics are incinerated or end up in the environment in one way or another. This is a concern because plastics contain a multitude of chemicals and toxins.

When plastics end up in waterways (e.g., rivers, lakes, and oceans) or landfills, chemicals from the plastics seep into the environment. Once the chemicals are present, they begin entering the food chain, threaten human health, and reduce the economic viability of the coastal environment.

Incinerated plastics also pollute the environment. Burning incinerator plastics releases harmful gases (e.g., dioxins, furans, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls) into the air.

Burning plastic also releases black carbon, also known as soot, contributing to climate change and low air quality.

2. Threatens Wildlife and Marine Species

Plastic threatens wildlife when it enters the food chain and ecosystem. Plastic contains several chemicals which can lead to injury or health problems when ingested.

Thousands of seabirds, seals, and other marine species and wildlife are killed yearly after ingesting or getting entangled in plastic.

When wildlife and marine species ingest plastic, it can cause them to starve to death because they cannot digest plastic. However, their stomach is full of plastic, making them feel full.

Toxic chemicals can also affect their health and, eventually, the food chain. For example, a fish may have consumed microplastics that it mistook for food, and the chemicals leached into the fish. Now, the fish may have been caught for human consumption or eaten by a predator. Currently, the chemicals reside in the predators or are consumed by humans.

The transfer of contaminants between marine species and humans through seafood consumption is known. It has been identified as a health hazard, but there remains much uncertainty as to how much it harms humans, wildlife, and marine species.

3. Contributes to Climate Change

The production and manufacture of plastics contribute to climate change by releasing greenhouse gases. All plastics are made from chemicals derived from fossil fuels (e.g., gas, oil, and coal). For example, eight percent of the world’s oil production manufactures plastics.

The production of plastic also uses a lot of water: nearly 22 gallons of water are needed to produce one pound of plastic.

Our reliance on and mass production of plastics prolongs our dependence on fossil fuels and non-renewable energy resources. The more plastic we manufacture and produce, the more fossil fuels we will need, and the more we will intensify climate change. Plastic and its production is not sustainable.

4. Plastics End Up in the Ocean

Every minute, two garbage trucks’ worth of plastic enter the ocean, meaning roughly 33 billion pounds of plastic enter the ocean annually. Even more alarming is that by 2050, more plastic will be in the sea than fish (by weight).

The major problems associated with plastics floating around the ocean are ingestion, suffocation, and entanglement of marine species. Marine mammals often mistake plastics for food, whether large or small pieces of microplastics.

Entangled animals often drown or starve because they are restricted, may suffer physical trauma, or are not able to escape.

Plastic waste can survive thousands of years in the water and does not biodegrade. Creating the perfect mechanism and transportation device for invasive species.

An invasive species is an organism that is not indigenous or native to a particular area and, when introduced, has the potential to distribute the ecosystem and cause serious harm.

Invasive species can out-compete native species or food and habitats and sometimes even cause their extinction.

5. Plastic Takes a Long Time to Decompose

Plastic is a very durable material, which makes it appealing. However, that property also makes plastic problematic. Plastic can’t break down completely since it is durable and resistant to degradation.

In most cases, plastic will never disappear; it just gets smaller and smaller and eventually turns into microplastics. Plastic can remain in the environment for centuries.

How long does it take plastic to decompose?

  • Plastic bag – 20 years
  • Coffee cup – 30 years
  • Plastic straw – 200 years
  • 6-pack plastic rings – 400 years
  • Plastic water bottle – 450 years
  • Coffee pod – 500 years
  • Plastic cup – 450 years
  • Disposable diaper – 500 years
  • Plastic toothbrush – 500 years

6. Microplastics are Harmful

Microplastics are tiny plastic particles less than five millimeters in diameter. They result from larger plastics breaking down into smaller pieces. Microplastics are considered a pollutant that harms the environment and the health of wildlife and marine species.

Marine species often consume microplastics, as they mistake them for food. For example, microplastics have been found in over 100 aquatic species and consumed by land-based animals.

Microplastics are harmful because they cannot be digested, block gastrointestinal tracks, and trick wildlife and marine species into thinking they don’t need to eat. They also expose organisms to high concentrations of hazardous toxins.

Microplastics are increasingly found everywhere, from seabirds’ stomachs to water processing and treatment plants.

History of Plastic

The first plastic (polymer) was created in 1862 by Alexander Parkes. In 1869, John Wesley Hyatt invented the first synthetic polymer in response to an urgent need to find a substitute for ivory.

Plastic quickly became an attractive and effective alternative to natural resources. It also has many redeemable qualities, such as ease of use, cleaning, and low cost.

After World War I, scientific advancements enabled the development of new forms of plastics (e.g., plastic wrap, Styrofoam, high-density polyethylene, and low-density polyethylene).

Mass production of plastics increased after World War II when machinery and technology were more readily available.

Plastic revolutionized many industries with its convenience and disposal nature (e.g., medicine). However, the manufacturing and production of plastics have continued to grow and expand, leading to what is often referred to as the plastic problem.

Researchers estimate that over 8.3 billion tonnes of plastic have been produced since the early 1950s. Half of all plastic in the world today has been made in the last 15 years.

There has been a distinct trend towards using single-use or disposal plastic. For example, one million plastic drinking bottles are purchased every minute, and 5 trillion single-use plastic bags are used globally yearly.

Half-produced and manufactured plastic is used only once and thrown away. Globally, over 300 million tonnes of plastic waste are produced every year.

Final Thoughts on Why Plastic is Bad for the Environment

Plastic is a man-made, nonrenewable, unsustainable resource that has become a massive part of our daily lives. It is not biodegradable, and only a small percentage of the world’s plastics are recycled. Thus, a large proportion of plastic is in our oceans, landfills, or nature.

Plastic is one of the most pressing environmental issues because it releases toxins into the environment, ends up in our oceans, does not decompose, threatens wildlife and marine species, and contributes to climate change.

The best alternative to single-use plastic and plastic, in general, can be reused and properly disposed of.

Plastic should be treated as reusable rather than a one-use, disposable product. Changing the narrative around plastic and finding more sustainable solutions is needed to mitigate this pressing environmental issue.

Related content: Ways to reduce plastic use »

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